IoT is a catch all terminology for the integration of the network, with sensors, devices, devices, big data and analytics. The industrial internet of things (IIoT) is the underpinning of the Smart City. Machine to Machine (M2M) is another terminology to describe low power applications.
Major Areas Where IoT Brings Value
IIoT has the power to transform seemingly mundane tasks into smart applications by adding network connectivity and sensor technology. The network technology types are many and particular to the goals of the application.
Verizon has showed astounding growth in a number of vertical markets between 2014 and 2015. They shared the following statistics on growth by market.
Thanks to Verizon for presenting the next 2 images at a Dense Network Conference.
Each Device has a Unique Identifier that enables it to communicate through the network to execute the application. The types of functions identifiers initiate are below.
RPMA-Random Phase Multiplexing
Ingenu is the commercial brand for a long established technology. Originally developed to transmit data from utility meters, the protocol is now being adopted globally as a low data rate LPWAN option that can compete with the likes of SigFox and NB-IoT.
Radio Frequency Identification systems use an RF signal and a tag to provide data that is either recorded or triggers an action. There are 2 types of tags: active and passive. The tag has an antenna and a microchip that either generate or respond to a RF Signal.
Bluetooth / BLE
Bluetooth is technology that has been heavily focused on small area networks for private user connectivity. It operates within the 2.4GHz range and with the latest specification, is highly power efficient (Especially with Bluetooth BLE). Unfortunately, Bluetooth transfers are relatively slow, however, this could be about to change with the upcoming Bluetooth 5 specification.
Low power, and ease of deployment could make SigFox an increasingly important protocol in the coming years. Backers hope to deploy networks globally, allowing for M2M communication over a power efficient and low bandwidth network.
Similar to ZigBee, Z-Wave is a consumer focused wireless protocol that uses mesh networking. It can be used to connect a number of in-home sensors and devices, such as climate and lighting controllers, security devices, and other automated devices.
ZigBee is a growing technology used to create local area networks for home automation and consumer IoT devices. It also operates within the popular 2.4GHz range, and uses mesh networking for better connectivity and device discovery.
This standard uses a specialized type of internet protocol that allows for efficient communication over networks with modest bandwidth capabilities. It is an open standard and is becoming popular with smart home automation systems.
Thread builds on the 6loWPAN protocol, and has some similarities to the ZigBee network. It is continually being developed and improved by Google, and is targeted at home asutomation and consumer IoT devices.
Traditional Wi-Fi systems are not ideal for outdoor IoT devices because they lack range and are energy demanding. WIFI-ah is a system that has been developed to increase range and allow for low power sensors to transmit small data packages over a low bandwidth link.
IEEE standard for WPAN. Various versions utilizing different bands. 802.15.1 uses Bluetooth to create a personal area network.
LTE allows for a cellular network that can be designed with base hardware, and then developed with new software that increases performance. This keeps costs low as infrastructure will remain the same throughout the lifetime of the network. LTE-M1 is not yet available, but is highly anticipated by IoT device developers, cellular operators, and other industry insiders.
Low Speed LTE
LTE Cat 0, 1, and 3, are all low speed and lower power networks that are ideal for basic IoT applications. Cat 0 in particular shows promise as an important wireless standard for M2M communication.
This LPWAN competes with SigFox for the low powered M2M communication that is essential for modern IoT devices and sensors. Devices connecting to an NB-IoT network could be battery powered for up to 10 years, making it perfect for remote stationary sensors in smart cities.
Lorawan is another wireless protocol that aims for power efficiency, albeit at the cost of network speed. Although not suitable for low latency and high bandwidth applications, it is perfect for low rate M2M transfers over a wide area network.